According to Sumantra Bose in his book, Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace, around 40,000 to 80,000 civilians, militants and security personnel died from the time period of 1989 to 2002 in both Kashmir Valley and Jammu region. More than 4,600 security personnel, 13,500 civilians and 15,937 militants including 3,000 from outside Jammu and Kashmir (mostly Pakistanis and some Afghans) were killed in this fourteen-year period. Also in this period, 55,538 incidents of violence were recorded. Indian forces engaged in counter insurgency operations captured around 40,000 firearms, 150,000 explosive devices, and over 6 million rounds of assorted ammunition.Jammu and Kashmir Coalition of Civil Society posits a figure of 70,000 deaths, most of them civilians. Since 2003, the annual fatalities have been declining. The districts with the most incidents of killing were Kupwara, Baramulla, Poonch, Doda, Anantnag and Pulwama.